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This study focuses on two spiritual organisations: the Tariqa Qadiriyya wa Naqshbandiyya (TQN) and the Subud Brotherhood. The TQN, a spiritual movement developed mainly by Ahmad Khatib ibn ‘Abd al-Ghaffar Sambas (1803–1875), is rooted in Islamic mystical tradition, whereas the Subud Brotherhood, which was founded by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo (1901–1987), has developed within the realm of Javanese mystical ideas. The first section of this book deals with the nature of ritual and specifically addresses the following issues: (a) How do the adherents of the Subud Brotherhood and the TQN practise their respective rituals? (b) What are the ideas and concepts underlying these rituals? (c) What are the affinities and differences between the rituals of the two organisations? The second part delves into the nature of leadership and addresses the following questions: (a) How has the notion of leadership developed within the Subud Brotherhood and the TQN? (b) What are the rituals, ideas and traditions which shape and sustain the notion of leadership in the two organisations? (c) What are the similarities and dissimilarities between the notion of leadership in the Subud Brotherhood and that in the TQN? This section also provides a portrait of female leadership in the Subud Brotherhood and the TQN, as well as the ideas and principles which support and hinder the tradition of assigning females an office in the respective brotherhoods.